In the past three months, I can recall five cases when women have turned down arthroplasties of various kinds. Their attitude seems to be: 'I am too old for an op; give me some tablets.'
I surmise that this is because the fairer sex are more stoical than men. If I nick my face while shaving I moan for a week, whereas my wife puts up with a lot of pain and discomfort without any overt discomfiture.
This is due to a basic gender difference and nothing to do with 'unconscious and ubiquitous social stereotyping that affects our behaviour'.
This is from a GP's perspective; I cannot say anything about the specialists' agenda.
Dr John Zacharias, Lincoln.