GP leaders warned the rise would add to pressure on practices that were already struggling financially.
The rise from £390 to £420 is the first increase in the fee doctors pay to the medical regulator since 2010.
Fee freeze ends
GMC chief executive Niall Dickson said that for five years the regulator had succeeded in cutting or freezing its fees.
But he added: 'Increased demand now means we need to restore it to the level it was in 2010, if we are to continue to meet our wide-ranging obligations. These responsibilities have increased substantially in recent years with, for example, the introduction of revalidation and the oversight of postgraduate education.'
During 2015 the GMC plans to 'scale up' its engagement with doctors about ethics and professional standards, Mr Dickson added.
GPC deputy chairman Dr Richard Vautrey said: 'This is yet more additional pressure on GPs at a time when practice funding is falling and expenses are rising. While on surface it appears to be a small amount, total these things costs add up. I would much prefer them to be doing what they were doing and reducing fees and reducing their costs rather than passing costs onto individual GPs.'
The fee for doctors registered without a license to practise will rise from £140 to £150 a year, the GMC said.
The fee for part one of the PLAB test will rise from £145 to £155, and the fee for part two will rise from £430 to £465.
The provisional registration fee for doctors at the start of their career will be frozen at £90, and doctors on lower incomes will be eligible for a 50% discount on the GMC fee, the regulator confirmed.