Almost two thirds (72%) of doctors who took part in a poll by a financial services company feared these factors could hit doctor numbers.
Financial issues were the leading concern for doctors, with 61% worried about changes to the NHS pension scheme.
A total of 68% said pension arrangements would deteriorate further in future.
More than half of doctors also said they were concerned about NHS privatisation, and 46% highlighted worries about health service reforms.
Despite the concerns, 75% of doctors said they would choose the same career again if they had the chance, and 70% said they would recommend medicine to someone at the start of their career.
The poll, by financial services provider Wesleyan, is based on responses from 101 doctors.