- Menon U, Gentry-Maharaj A, Hallett R et al. Sensitivity and specificity of multimodal and ultrasound screening for ovarian cancer, and stage distribution of detected cancers: results of the prevalence screen of the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS). Lancet Oncol 2009; 10(4): 327-40.
Initial results reported the multimodal screening group had a significantly (p <0.0001) improved specificity of 99.8% and a similar sensitivity of 89.4% compared with the USS group. Almost 50% of invasive malignancy detected was stage 1 and 2 (compared with 20-30% in the general population).
- Bowtell DD. The genesis and evolution of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 2010; 10(11): 803-8.
It is now widely accepted that ovarian cancer is not one disease but a collective term for invasive cancers originating from different tissues but presenting as ovarian or pelvic tumours.
- Tothill RW, Tinker AV, George J et al. Novel molecular subtypes of serous and endometrioid ovarian cancer linked to clinical outcome. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14(16): 5198-208.
Studies have determined distinct molecular subtypes within the same histological group which are also associated with clinical endpoints such as disease progression and survival.
- NICE. Ovarian cancer: the recognition and initial management of ovarian cancer. CG122. London, NICE, 2011.
- RCOG/BSGE Joint Guideline. Management of suspected ovarian masses in premenopausal women. Green Top Guideline 62. 2011. www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/GTG62_021211_OvarianMasses.pdf
- SIGN. Epithelial ovarian cancer 2003. www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign75.pdf
Contributed by Miss Jane Borley and Miss Sadaf Ghaem-Maghami