Evidence base: Hypopituitarism

Find all the latest information about guidelines, online resources and key texts on the management of hypopituitarism.

MRI showing a large pituitary adenoma (arrows) with upward extension, impinging on the optic chiasm (Photograph: Author)
MRI showing a large pituitary adenoma (arrows) with upward extension, impinging on the optic chiasm (Photograph: Author)

 Clinical trials

  • Tomlinson JW, Holden N, Hills RK, et al. Association between premature mortality and hypopituitarism. West Midlands Prospective Hypopituitary Study Group. Lancet 2001; 357: 425-31.
  • Abs R, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Mattsson AF, et al. Determinants of cardiovascular risk in 2589 hypopituitary GH-deficient adults - a KIMS database analysis. Eur J Endocrinol 2006; 155: 79-90.


  • The Endocrine Society. Evaluation and treatment of adult growth hormone deficiency: An endocrine society clinical practice fuideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91: 1621-34.
  • Ghigo E, Masel B, Aimaretti G, et al, Consensus guidelines on screening for hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 2005; 19: 711-24. Consensus on screening and treatment of pituitary insufficiency following traumatic brain injury.
  • Cook DM, Yuen KCJ, Biller BMK, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for growth hormone use in growth hormone-deficient adults and transition patients - 2009 update. Endocr Pract 2009; 15 Suppl 2: 1-29. This is an updated version of the guideline which was published in 2003 by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists.

Key texts

  • 'The pituitary' In: Turner H, Wass J. Oxford Handbook of Endocrinology and Diabetes. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009. This is a handy brief textbook reference.
  • 'Neuroendocrinology and The Pituitary' In: De Groot LJ, Jameson JL. Endocrinology (5th Ed.). Philadelphia. Elsevier Health. 2005. This is a comprehensive textbook resource.


  • www.endotext.com - Chapter 12 of the Endocrine Resource - Hypopituitarism - is a definitive review of the subject.


Contributed by Dr Rajeev Raghavan, specialist registrar, and Dr Karin Bradley, consultant endocrinologist, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust

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