- De Giulia F, Khawb KT, Cowie MR et al. Incidence and outcome of persons with a clinical diagnosis of heart failure in a general practice population of 696,884 in the United Kingdom. Eur J Heart Fail 2005; 7(3): 295-302. See the diagnostic algorithm in section 4.4, page 70.
This large population-based study of a UK GP practice population of about 700,000 assessed the incidence and outcome of HF based on clinical diagnosis by GPs. It showed that identification of HF by GPs is comparable to diagnosis by cardiologists using diagnostic criteria.
- NICE. Clinical Guideline. Chronic heart failure: management of chronic heart failure in adults in primary and secondary care. NICE, London, 2010.
- Dickstein K, Cohen-Solal A, Filippatos G et al. ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008: the Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008 of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur J Heart Fail 2008; 10(10): 933-89.
Information on all aspects of aetiopathogenesis, classification, diagnosis and management of HF.
- Hunt SA, Abraham WT, Chin MH et al. ACC AHA Guidelines. 2009. Focused update incorporated into the ACC/AHA 2005 Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure in Adults. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 53(15): e1-e90.
- SIGN. Management of chronic heart failure, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. SIGN, 2007.
- American Heart Association's patient information website. www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartFailure/ Heart-Failure_UCM_002019_SubHomePage.jsp#
- Heart Failure Association of the ESC. www.heartfailurematters.org
Contributed by Dr Rajiv Sankaranarayanan, a cardiology specialty registrar in electrophysiology, North West Deanery, and British Heart Foundation Clinical Research Fellow