- Liangos O, Wald R, O’Bell JW, et al. Epidemiology and outcomes of acute renal failure in hospitalised patients: a national survey. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 1: 43–51
This study looked at the epidemiology of AKI in the US and found it was associated with a prolonged hospital stay of two days and an adjusted odds ratio of 4.1 for hospital mortality. It illustrated the cost effects of AKI on the health service.
- Zacharias M, Gilmore ICS, Herbison GP, et al. Interventions for protecting renal function in the perioperative period (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; Issue 3, CD003590
- Ho KM, Sheridan DJ. Meta-analysis of furosemide to prevent or treat acute renal failure. BMJ 2006; 333 (7565): 420–5
This meta-analysis of nine RCTs found that furosemide is not associated with any clinical benefits in the prevention and treatment of AKI, but increases the risk of ototoxicity.
- DoH. National service framework for renal services – part two: Chronic kidney disease acute renal failure and end of life care. DoH, London, 2010.
- NICE. Acutely ill patients in hospital. CG50, NICE, London, 2007.
- The Renal Association. Acute kidney injury. 2010. www.renal.org/Clinical/GuidelinesSection/AcuteKidneyInjury.aspx
- Steddon S, Ashman N, Chesser A, et al. Oxford Handbook of nephrology and hypertension. Oxford University Press, 2007, Oxford.
- Ronco C, Bellomo R, Kellum J. Acute kidney injury. Basal, Karger, 2007.
- The National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcomes and Death. Adding insult to injury. 2009. www.ncepod.org.uk
This report investigated the management of patients who died as result of AKI and highlighted the failings in their clinical care. The report included recommendations for the early diagnosis, prevention and management of AKI.
- Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes. www.kdigo.org
KDIGO is a global foundation dedicated to improving the care and outcomes of kidney disease patients. It has five global clinical practice guidelines in nephrology under development.
Contributed by Dr Hannah Kilbride, specialist registrar, and Dr Marlies Ostermann, consultant in nephrology and critical care, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust London.