The money will allow patients to undergo novel flexible sigmoidoscopy screening for free on the NHS.
The DoH said £43 million will be spent to ensure all high priority patients get access to proton beam therapy, which should help 400 people a year.
An extra 1,200 cancer specialists will be hired by 2012, and £10.75 million will go to cancer awareness campaigns.
Health secretary Andrew Lansley said: 'I want the NHS to deliver cancer survival rates comparable to the best in the world.
'We have secured the funding for a four-year roll out and will, subject to the green light from the UK National Screening Committee, begin pilots from spring next year.'
He added: 'We will also, if evidence proves it is effective, introduce a national awareness campaign on the signs and symptoms of cancer, helping to ensure that people get diagnosed when their cancer can be cured.'
The plans come in addition to a £50 million fund for cancer drugs currently unavailable on the NHS in England.