Researchers from Birmingham and Solihull mental health trust sent postal questionnaires to all 3,512 doctors identified as working in teaching hospitals and surgeries in Birmingham.
A total of 542 GPs were involved in the study.
Overall, 25.8% of doctors said that they felt the prevalence of psychiatric illness in doctors was higher than that of the public, with 12.4% of respondents stating that they had experienced a mental illness.
Doctors were, however, found to be reluctant to disclose a mental illness to a fellow colleague because of the stigma attached to mental health issues.
Additionally, 40.6% of doctors said that they would look to seek treatment at a local private facility, with only 21.1% prepared to ask for treatment at a local NHS hospital.
The researchers concluded that education on stigma and its consequences should be made more prominent in medical schools and training courses for junior doctors.