Figures from Health Intelligence Yorkshire and Humber for 2012/13, released by Diabetes UK, show 10.5% of people in Brent in London have the disease, followed by 9.9% in Newham, also in the capital. The national average is 7.4%.
If current trends continue, seven local authority areas in England will have rates of 10% or over by 2020.
Barbara Young, chief executive of Diabetes UK, said: 'It is truly alarming that there is now somewhere in England where more than one in ten of the people have diabetes and shows that we are heading at frightening speed towards a future where diabetes becomes the norm.'
She said patients must be educated to understand their personal risk of developing the condition so they can take steps to prevent it.
The charity is urging people who are overweight, have a large waist or are over 40 to undergo a risk assessment for type 2 diabetes. They are also appealing to patients with a family history of diabetes or those who are South Asian and over 25.
People should contact their local GP or pharmacy, or visit a dedicated website to assess their risk, Diabetes UK said.
The 10 areas of England with the highest diabetes rates are:
- Brent (London): 10.5%
- Newham (London): 9.9%
- Wolverhampton: 9.6%
- Harrow (London): 9.4%
- Sandwell: 9.4%
- Leicester: 9.3%
- Walsall: 8.8%
- Blackburn with Darwen: 8.7%
- Redbridge (London): 8.7%
- Birmingham: 8.7%