A study of NHS managers by researchers at Royal Holloway, University of London, highlighted a lack of social skills and poor understanding of emotions as key factors in failure among NHS managers.
The study Leadership and Patient Care: Managing in the NHS, found the most ineffective managers failed to relate and empathise with staff.
Report author Professor Paula Nicolson said the most successful managers engaged with staff 'on a psychological or emotional level' helping them understand how they worked and 'take followers with them' during periods of reform.
'The NHS can be a difficult place to work, with managers bombarded by government directives and patient concerns. Being a leader in the NHS is not easy,' she said.