| || |
|Blocked nasolacrimal duct|
Daccryostenosis, or blocked nasolacrimal duct, this is when the tear duct is blocked at birth due to incomplete development of the nasolacrimal duct. Some patients have teary eyes. The eye itself appears normal, unless infection occurs (dacryocystitis), which is accompanied by purulent or mucopurulent discharge and, in some cases, conjunctivitis.
Massage of the lacrimal sac is usually sufficient in young babies.
| Left internal squint |
Strabismus in childhood is often noticed within weeks of birth. Older children may complain of double vision. It can be confirmed by asymmetrical light reflections from the eyes.
Early treatment is important and may involve glasses, a patch over the good eye, or surgical correction. If left uncorrected, vision in the affected eye may be lost.
| || |
When seen in young children, it tends to disappear with age. It may be confused with squint but light reflection from the eyes can distinguish between them. Treatment is unnecessary but the appearance can be altered with surgery.
In mild cases, regular vision checks should be made. Surgical correction is available if vision is affected or an ocular torticollis is present. Results are usually good.
| || |
| Microphthalmia and anophthalmia|
Anophthalmia (absence of one or both eyes) and microphthalmia (abnormally small eye or eyes) are congenital malformations of the eye, sometimes associated with other congenital abnormalities. The condition is obvious at birth. In some cases no cause is found but others may be genetic or the result of maternal infection, such as rubella or toxoplasmosis, in pregnancy.
Management of microphthalmia and anophthalmia
There is no treatment to restore vision in the unseeing eye. Early advice on surgery is important. If left untreated, the patient may suffer from disfigurement. As in this girl, an ocular prosthesis can improve appearance.
| || |
Depending on the extent of the lesion, central vision may be affected. Vision is sometimes difficult to assess in young children and may only become clear when the patient can communicate fully.
Initially glasses or soft contact lenses are helpful, but with progression, rigid lenses are required. Surgery, in the form of shaving of the corneal surface or corneal transplant, is available.