The climate crisis is a health crisis. Climate change affects the fundamental determinants of health through its impact on food availability, water and air quality as well as causing excess deaths through heat, extreme weather and increases in vector-borne disease.
Acting on climate change not only reduces the risks of future impacts, it also improves health now. For example, reducing fossil fuel use reduces air pollution, which benefits our health now as well as mitigating climate change.
An environmentally sustainable diet, low in animal products and high in vegetables, enables a growing population to be fed, encourages re-wilding of the land and is also a healthy diet. This is why the 2015 Lancet Commission on Health and Climate Change called action on climate change the ‘greatest opportunity for public health in the 21st century’.
First steps for practices
Many GP practices are interested in becoming more green and sustainable. You will be able to achieve a great deal more if the whole practice team is motivated and understands how action on climate change is essential to our health and wellbeing.
There are some excellent two-minute videos which explain the link between climate change and health and the multiple co-benefits on health of taking action now on the Greener Practice website, which we started to help general practices with ideas and resources.
You could link provide a link to the Greener Practice website on your own practice site to make your commitment to sustainability visible, while also educating your patients of the link between climate action and health.
The Centre for Sustainable Healthcare also has a primary care network with useful resources for practices and a forum for people to ask questions. Terms used to describe healthcare that acts on the climate crisis include sustainable healthcare and planetary health.
Here are my ten top tips to get you started.
1. Take part in the Green Impact Audit for Health
The Green Impact Audit for Health toolkit has been developed by GPs and advises practices on actions that can be taken towards environmentally sustainable clinical practice. Actions are wide ranging from reducing waste to increasing social prescribing. It easy to get started and practices get a ‘working towards accreditation’ certificate for taking even one action and can progress to gain bronze, silver and gold awards. Anyone can ’test drive’ the site before registering using the login email@example.com and password testtoolkit.
2. Nominate a climate champion
This person can then report progress and challenges at every practice meeting, where action on planetary health should be a standing item on the agenda.
3. Promote active travel
Walking or cycling to work reduces air pollution (which the Royal College of Physicians estimates is responsible for 40,000 premature UK deaths every year) and has huge benefits on physical and mental health. Practices can enable active travel by, for example, installing cycle racks to help staff and patients travel by bike and obtaining an e-bike to enable staff to travel to home visits quickly. By demonstrating active travel we act as exemplars for our patients. For those staff and patients worried about their safety on a bike, practices can consider signposting to cycle proficiency training, which may be available free, through your council.
4. Consider switching to green inhalers during annual reviews
The propellants in MDIs are greenhouse gases 1,000 times more powerful than carbon dioxide. MDI inhalers contribute to 4% of the NHS carbon footprint. Dry powder inhalers have a dramatically lower carbon footprint and research shows that for many patients they can be just as effective at a similar cost.1 In the UK 80% of all patients are on MDIs compared with Sweden where only 10% are on MDIs. NICE has produced a decision aid for practice nurses and patients to consider together whether swapping to a DPI is the best option. There is also an excellent patient-facing website called Green Inhaler, which is written by a respiratory consultant, that you can link to from your practice website.
5. Refer patients in fuel poverty
A 2019 government report estimates that 10.9% of the UK population are living in fuel poverty,2 which is linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Supporting patients in fuel poverty to insulate their homes reduces energy bills and improves health. Your Community Support Worker may identify local charities that support patients in this situation.
6. Signpost to green prescribing
There is increasing evidence of the benefits of both social prescribing and time spent in nature on mental and physical wellbeing. Green prescribing aims to combine these benefits by signposting patients to social activities involving time spent in nature, such as gardening and guided walks.
7. Switch to renewable energy
Consider using a comparison site to guide a switch to a 100% renewable tariff – there are a number of websites that enable you to do this.
8. Do a sustainable quality improvement project
Quality improvement is part of GPs appraisal process and expected of practices. If you are a teaching or training practice quality improvement projects may be part of the training requirement of GP registrars and medical students. Consider doing a QI project on environmental sustainability. You could choose one of the areas above. The Centre for Sustainable Healthcare has some useful downloadable resources and offers training.
9. Work at primary care network level
This may be the best place for pooling resources and energy, and supporting a green mindset across many practices. Money invested at this level can be used more strategically to develop projects on all the actions listed here. PCNs can support initiatives such as pocket gardening (creating small garden areas), e-bike schemes for chronic disease patients, recycling, discounts for a block renewable energy contracts etc.
10. Advocate for climate action
We are trusted professionals with a responsibility to improve and protect our patients’ health. We can support the case for urgent climate action by communicating the health impacts of climate change, the need for climate adaptation and advocating for health to be at the centre of policymaking on climate change at local, regional and national levels.
These are just a few suggestions and there are many other actions that can be taken from a personal to national level. The important thing is to take a first step and enjoy the journey. You’ll find many people who willing to join you in your efforts.
- Dr Aarti Bansal is a GP in Sheffield and chair of Greener Practice, a South Yorkshire group of GPs aiming to develop initiatives that engage GPs and practices in greener practice.
This article first appeared on medeconomics.co.uk
- Wilkinson, AJK et al. The costs of switching to low global-warming potential inhalers. An economic and carbon footprint analysis of NHS prescription data in England. BMJ Open; 30 Oct 2019; DOI: bmjopen-2018-028763
- Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy. Annual Fuel Poverty Statistics in England, 2019 (2017 data)