- Haemorrhagic shock
- Bleeding not stopped by direct pressure
- Recurrent unilateral epistaxis
- Nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, facial numbness or diplopia
- Signs suggestive of a bleeding disorder
- Anticoagulant therapy
Epistaxis prevalence is increased in children under the age of 10 years and in adults aged over 35 years.
Most nasal bleeding is idiopathic; trauma to the nasal mucosa may damage superficial blood vessels. Rarely, recurrent unilateral epistaxis may be suggestive of an underlying malignancy. Malignancy of the sinonasal tract may present with nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea, epistaxis, headaches and facial pain. There should be a high index of suspicion if there is unilateral facial swelling, diplopia, unilateral proptosis or cranial neuropathies.
|Causes of epistaxis|
The nose has a blood supply arising from the internal and external carotid arteries. Epistaxis may be classified as anterior or posterior. The ethmoidal arteries supply the area above the middle turbinate and these arise from the internal carotid artery.
The sphenopalatine artery, which arises from the external carotid artery, supplies most of the nasal septum and turbinates on the lateral wall. Most nasal bleeding is anterior and often arises from Kiesselbach's plexus on the lower part of the anterior septum (Little's area). Approximately 10% of nosebleeds are posterior bleeds, which are more common in older patients.
It is important to establish whether the nosebleed started on one or both sides and how long it lasted. If the bleeding has stopped, it is helpful to ask how the patient tried to stop it. Establishing previous epistaxis is useful, as well as its frequency and severity. There may have been a trigger, such as sneezing, or nose blowing or picking, preceding it. Associated factors include symptoms of URTI, nasal obstruction or facial pain. It may be relevant to ask about excessive bleeding with minor trauma, easy bruising and haemoptysis.
The medical history may reveal a background of bleeding disorders or other conditions which may result in platelet dysfunction or coagulation. The latter may include malignancy, cirrhosis and pregnancy. A detailed drug history should be taken.
Physical examination should include assessing vital signs, as resuscitation may be required. There may be signs to indicate the presence of a bleeding disorder, such as petechiae or purpura. Telangiectasia may be visible in the mouth. The head and neck should be examined and it may be relevant to carry out cranial nerve examination. Nasal endoscopy may be warranted, dependent on the clinical presentation. Management
If there is active bleeding, this needs to be stopped in the first instance; resuscitation may be necessary. Most anterior nosebleeds are self-limiting and do not require intervention.
Pinching the anterior part of the nose for 15 minutes may stop bleeding by providing tamponade for the anterior septal blood vessels. Ideally, this should be performed with the patient sitting upright.
Examination usually reveals an anterior bleeding site. Anaesthetic and vasoconstrictor topical sprays may be used, for example, oxymetazoline spray. A cotton pledget impregnated with a vasoconstrictor and a topical anaesthetic may be inserted into the nose.
In the acute setting, it is important to identify a bleeding point, so that chemical or electrocautery may be carried out. Chemical cautery is performed using a silver nitrate stick, which is applied to the bleeding point for five seconds with firm pressure. Normal saline may be used if there is staining. Only one side of the nasal septum should be treated, due to the risk of septal perforation. If this is unsuccessful, anterior packing, compressive balloons, posterior packing or embolisation may be required.
In the primary care setting, nasal tampons may be used. It is worth excluding high BP as a possible contributing factor, although the relationship between the two is controversial.
If there are symptoms or signs of a bleeding disorder, blood tests, such as FBC and coagulation screen, may be required.
- Dr Kochhar is a GP principal in Bexhill, East Sussex
- Pope LE, Hobbs CG. Epistaxis: an update on current management. Postgrad Med J 2005; 81: 309-14.
- Schlosser RJ. Clinical practice. Epistaxis. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 784-9.