The meta-analysis of 30 studies involving 1.5m children found the increased risk was particularly marked in those born before 32 weeks of gestation.
Study authors said there was now ‘compelling evidence’ of a link between preterm birth and wheezing disorders.
They added: 'Given the projected global increases in children surviving preterm births, research now needs to focus on understanding underlying mechanisms, and then to translate these insights into the development of preventive interventions.'
The international team of researchers found wheezing disorders were 46% more likely in children born before 37 weeks of gestation. In children born before 32 weeks, this risk rose to three times as likely.
Researchers estimated that preterm birth may be responsible for about 3.1% of childhood wheezing disorders.
They also found that the increased risk persisted throughout childhood. Study authors said this refuted previous suggestions that the effects of preterm birth on asthma diminish with age.