DoH plans to raise overall contributions into the NHS pension scheme by 3% could lead to doctors' contributions rising from 7.5% or 8.5% to as much as 13% or 15.5% by 2015, the BMA warned.
The estimated increase was set out in figures from the government's actuarial department, according to the BMA.
Such as sharp rise, just three years after an NHS pensions overhaul which increased many doctors' contributions, could trigger a wave of early retirements, BMA leaders said.
BMA chairman Dr Hamish Meldrum said: 'NHS staff feel that their pension is under attack on several fronts. Doctors are likely to be particularly badly affected, with a threat for many of seeing their contributions double, possibly for a poorer pension, and having worked an extra eight years.
'This cannot be justified given that the NHS pension scheme underwent a major overhaul only three years ago and is in very good health.'
GP revealed last month that half of GPs could retire if the government implemented recommendations from Lord Hutton's review of public sector pensions that could raise their retirement age and cut the value of their pensions.