The study, Inclusion Health, found that while progress had been made to address the health of excluded groups in society, problems remain.
Those in greatest need of public services often do not get the care they require, the report said.
Socially excluded groups 'often have complex needs and require a sophisticated and flexible response from service providers', it added.
Care services minister Phil Hope said the past 10 years had seen successful healthcare reforms and achievements including improved life expectancy and infant mortality.
‘The challenge now is to build upon this improvement in quality, creating more personal, responsive and accessible services that are not just good, but universally great,' he said.
‘That includes delivery of high quality and affordable health care for everybody.'
The government has launched a National Inclusion Health Board, chaired by RCGP chairman Professor Steve Field, to tackle this agenda.
The board will publish commissioning guidance, which will set out how the needs of socially excluded groups can be better assessed and met.
Inclusion health will also be made part of undergraduate training for all nurses, doctors and dentists.
Third sector minister Angela Smith said: ‘Health and care Services in Britain continue to improve year-on-year but analysis from this study shows that we can still do more to help those most in need.'
She added: ‘Inclusion Health will lead the way in improving health services to help those most vulnerable and will build on the great work that is already happening up and down the country.'