The Conservative member for Totnes beat fellow Tory David Tredinnick in the MPs’ vote.
Dr Wollaston, who took over the position from former health secretary Stephen Dorrell in 2014, said ahead of the election she would like to continue work such as the committee’s enquiry into child mental health.
The MP, who worked as a GP and hospital doctor in Devon for 24 years, said: ‘I believe that the health committee plays an important role in holding to account not only the government but all those who commission and provide these vital services including NHS England and CCGs.’
Dr Wollaston told GPonline last year that key Conservative plans to extend seven-day GP access to every patient in England would be unachievable in some parts of the country.
The MP made a name for herself as independent-minded soon after being elected in 2010 when she opposed parts of the coalition government’s Health and Social Care Act reforms.